Since creating my skating blog, I thought I would take this opportunity to also share another passion of mine which is writing. Here are some of my latest works...  

November 2018

The Holmdel Journal Publication


September 2018

I can’t remember the last time I went out to see a movie with my whole family…was it when I was 10 yrs old?…12 yrs ? My brother and I got dragged out on a Saturday night, the one night I usually block off to hang out with my friends, to see “Crazy Rich Asians.” My father had been talking about this new movie for days, explaining the importance of supporting the first all-Asian film in 25 years. So on one of the rare nights he was off from work, my family took a trip to the movie theater. I admit I did not know what to expect at first, but I was immediately captivated by the Chinese music once the movie began. As I laughed and cried, I was pleasantly surprised at how touched I was by this film. I was especially impacted by the strong feminism portrayed in the movie with powerful female characters dominating the storyline. As each woman acted as a direct inspiration to me, I was compelled to further analyze the characters and their characteristics in greater depth.

“Crazy Rich Asians”: We Are Asian, Hear Us Roar!

Top spot in the box office. Rom-com of the decade. One of the biggest breakouts of 2018. Crazy Rich Asians has surpassed all levels of crazy success. Who would have thought a movie with an all-Asian cast would become a lucrative blockbuster film, challenging not only racial diversity, but also making strides to reverse gender stereotypes?

But overcoming obstacles is exactly what this movie is about.

Based on Kevin Kwan’s 2013 best-selling novel of the same name, Crazy Rich Asians is not just another cliched love story. It is a bold statement embracing the power of womanhood. The movie centers around strong independent women who defy societal and cultural conformity. As today’s feminist movement continues to gain traction, women’s voices are increasingly heard. The timely release of this movie perfectly depicts the struggles women face and validates their place in society. For Asian women who are often objectified as meek and submissive, their struggles are even greater. As Director Jon M. Chu noted, “It’s not a movie, it’s a movement.”

In a humorous yet compelling love story, Rachel Chu (Constance Wu) travels to Singapore where she meets the insanely wealthy family of her boyfriend, Nick Young (Henry Golding). To Rachel’s dismay, her Americanized upbringing and lack of traditional Asian values result in exclusion from Nick’s family, especially from his mother, Eleanor (Michelle Yeoh). Rachel’s inability to conform to Eleanor’s strict standards creates palpable tension, ending in a surprising twist.

Arriving in Singapore for the first time, Rachel is initially intimidated and overwhelmed by the foreign culture she is thrust into. The expectations that come with marriage into a traditional family deeply disturb her, leaving her to question an uncertain future with Nick. However, she refuses to adhere to the cultural norm, and in turn, gains a greater sense of self-worth and confidence. Her ability to stand up for herself is demonstrated at the end of the movie in an intense Mahjong game against Eleanor where she uses her wits and clever manipulation to fight back. With a whirlwind of hand movements swirling over clacking game tiles in synch with rapid dialogue, this pivotal scene is artfully choreographed to display a parallel between the game and the characters’ conflict. In her courageous confrontation of Eleanor, Rachel tactfully uses this traditional Chinese pastime to send a telling message. Rachel’s command of the game symbolizes the control and power she ultimately has over her own life.

Rachel’s primary adversary, Eleanor, also embodies the qualities of a formidable female figure. Yeoh’s performance is exceptional, accurately creating a character with composed strength that has the ability to inflict distress with a single icy glare. While self-sacrificing for the benefit of the family, Eleanor is anything but a pushover. Highly respected and often even feared, her dominance and authority make her the quintessential tiger mom. As it is her instinct to shape her son’s future to her own machinations, Eleanor’s relentless disapproval of Rachel is merely an act of tough love for Nick. However, she did undergo an evolution of her own as she eventually breaks from the tiger mom stereotype and becomes more supportive of her son’s true desires. Her ability to recognize and respect Rachel is a testament that acquiescence is not a weakness. In fact, it shows adaptability, an invaluable trait that all strong, open-minded women possess. Eleanor even begins to develop a flicker of admiration for Rachel, a slow but steady transformation that Yeoh executes impeccably. Yeoh is even able to preserve Eleanor’s regal aura and dignity throughout the whole movie, despite the change her character experiences.

The power of the strong independent woman is also portrayed in the character of Nick’s glamorous cousin, Astrid Leong-Teo (Gemma Chan). Throughout most of the movie, Astrid follows the formula of a traditional Chinese wife by reverently placing her husband’s pride on a pedestal, sacrificing her own. Despite being significantly wealthier, Astrid goes out of her way to conceal her astronomical spending in attempt to protect her jealous and insecure husband’s ego. While initially suffering in silent obedience, Astrid later finds the strength to break from the role of the dutiful wife. Chan’s captivating performance portrays Astrid not only with sophistication and poise, but also with quiet strength that grows throughout the movie. In a defining moment, Astrid delivers a heavy blow to her husband with the line, “It’s not my job to make you feel like a man. I can’t make you something you’re not.” With the utterance of those words, a paradigm shift occurs. Astrid reclaims her power as a woman and frees herself from the shackles of her marriage, transforming into a dominant force. Not only does this iconic line further injure her husband’s insecure nature, it also resonates with the audience and indirectly attacks the fragile egos of all men. Astrid’s evolution sends an empowering message to the audience: a woman does not need a man to be successful.

Straying away from the standard patriarchal stereotype of having male characters dominate the storyline, Crazy Rich Asians was intentionally produced to have women take central spotlight. This groundbreaking shift in the power dynamic not only allows women to be perceived in a new light, but more specifically, allows the voice of Asian women to be broadcasted on an international scale. Watching these leading characters evolve into independent individuals sends an empowering message to all women, further contributing to the feminist movement. A light comedy that pulls on one’s emotional heartstrings, Crazy Rich Asians encourages women to be unapologetically true to themselves. As Director Chu so eloquently expressed, “I want [my daughter] to live in a world where she’s seeing Constance Wu [and] Michelle Yeoh….be these strong independent people that don’t need a man in their life to be fulfilled, and that love themselves and know that they’re worth every inch of their existence, and can be anything and do whatever they want.”

The essence of strong women embodied so effectively in this heartwarming yet hilarious film is far from over. The stories of Rachel, Eleanor, and Astrid will continue in a sequel entitled, China’s Rich Girlfriend. While details are yet to be released, there is no doubt that the movie’s powerful female characters will continue to carry the torch of female empowerment as they strive to break through the glass ceiling.

JULY 2018

I'm currently away attending a two-week journalism program at the New York Times Summer Academy in NYC and I just completed my first writing assignment.This program is a once in a lifetime experience for me as I have the unique opportunity to study at a top national newspaper company and meet and learn from award-winning professional reporters and expert practitioners from all different fields. I get to learn outside the classroom by attending enrichment trips to museums, historical sites, local neighborhoods and cultural events. The opportunity to learn journalism in a big city like New York is an ideal environment and training ground to immerse myself in a culture that is so rich and diverse and be up close to the action where news and compelling stories originate.

Here are a couple of my written assignments- the first one was on skateboarding. I took a trip to a local Brooklyn neighborhood skate park and learned and reported about skateboarding.  Many of my peers wrote about the gentrification and race/gender stereotypes of skateboarding but I took a different angle as I was fascinated of how art and fashion plays a role in skateboarding. My second writing was on street art and this was my favorite assignment because I learned so much about this creative and unique visual artwork which is what is now coined 'urban art'.  

Please note fictional names were used to protect the privacy of individuals. Happy Reading!

Art & Fashion in Skateboarding

 Golconda Park is adorned with a variety of beautiful stickers, bringing color & culture to the park

Golconda Park is adorned with a variety of beautiful stickers, bringing color & culture to the park

A rainy Tuesday morning in Brooklyn does little to stop people of all ages as they make their way to Golconda Park, the hottest new spot in town. Colors flash by as participants skillfully fly into the air performing tricks and perfecting their technique. Dressed in baggy attire, gliding on embellished boards, these people are easily identifiable: skateboarders.

For as long as skateboarding has been around, art and fashion have followed. This huge aspect of skateboarding culture is often under appreciated and even looked down upon by conventional society, but these skaters’ artistic talents are often not given nearly enough attention.

“Why be boring?” said John Garcia. The 20-year-old from Fort Greene, Brooklyn explained how much he loves seeing people use their artistic eye to create sensational effects in both art and fashion. He, along with other skaters, believes skateboarding doubles as both a sport and a form of individual expression.

The beautiful designs that adorn boards are unique to each skater, giving individuals their own personal, creative outlet to explore various designs and patterns. Using their boards as their canvases, skaters can express themselves through colors, designs, and sticker selections.

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Stickers are one of the most recognizable characteristics when referring to art in skating. As described by Garcia, they are a “sign of creativity.” They are a key element in the decorative process, appearing in every shape, size, and color.

Skaters select stickers based on personal preference - many stickers have undercover meanings and symbolic references, while others are chosen simply for the overall aesthetic. Popular sticker trends include rebellious slogans, favorite animals, and memorable locations.

Steve Rodriguez, the 47-year-old creator of Golconda Park as well as an avid skater himself, referred to each board as a “personal DIY gallery” of stickers.

“Stickers have always been a part of skateboarding,” Rodriguez explained, due to the fact that almost every participant uses them to customize his or her board.

Stickers also function for advertisement purposes, allowing skaters to show off their favorite brands. Neff, Zumiez, and RipnDip are just a few of the many companies that can be found displayed on customers’ boards.

Rodriguez also mentioned that “a lot of people actually make stickers themselves using sticker sheets,” and garnishing their board with their designs allow them to promote their brand and gain recognition. Not only is this good publicity, but the intricate detailing of brand stickers also makes them aesthetically pleasing and shows off the creator’s artistic abilities.

Besides art, fashion plays another major role in skater culture. Typically dressed in loose-fitting pants, printed t-shirts, and sneakers, skaters aim for a look that represents a cool but comfortable vibe. Not only does the relaxed, casual clothing allow skaters to move around freely, but it also reflects their free spirits.

More recently, urban skater fashion has become immersed in high fashion. Skaters’ clothing choices make a statement, influencing pop culture icons and inspiring new trends as a result. Hunter explained that many celebrities such as A$AP Mob “get a lot of their fashion from skating, you know like baggy pants.” As trends continue to evolve each day, more and more skater qualities are becoming enmeshed in popular culture.

Although skaters’ fashion ideas have become more prevalent in today’s society, this actually negatively impacts them. Companies such as Vans and Supreme which initially existed solely for skaters, have now become huge brands that have expanded far beyond the skating community.

“If skateboarding companies get more popular, they’re going to hike up the prices and then we can’t wear our own clothes. It’s kind of messed up,” said 17-year-old Lisa Tsang from Brooklyn.

For instance, Supreme has existed for 24 years, initially considered nothing but skate-wear. However, more recently, this company has become a reputable brand, especially for celebrities and rappers. Their prices have skyrocketed with shirts, sweatshirts, and hats costing in excess of $1,000.

Like Supreme, many other skate companies’ customers are not skaters anymore. This has negatively impacted the skating community because their culture is no longer uniquely theirs. These brands have become more of a world fashion statement rather than something only skaters share. Lewis Clark, a 14-year-old from Brooklyn, is against this, saying it is “taking away the culture of skating.”

Skaters are also very emotionally attached to the brands which they identify as skaters’ clothes. When Justin Bieber and Rihanna were spotted wearing Thrasher shirts, skaters lashed out in protest.

“ Back then, skateboarding was rejected by the public. People got mad at skaters and told them they are a nuisance to society,” skateboarder Henry Smith commented on Youtube. “It pisses off skaters that (were) ridiculed by society, and now society just seems to take away one of our major companies.”

Even Thrasher magazine’s editor, James Phelps, believes celebrities have encroached on the skating industry. He released a statement that cursed out “clowns” like Bieber and Rihanna for wearing skater clothes.

Despite the fact that popular culture has begun to take over skating culture, this has not stopped skaters from continuing to express their true selves through art and fashion. Aesthetics are a pivotal part of their culture which should be celebrated in order to preserve the “skater look.”

“The most fashionable people,” Smith said, “are skaters.” 

The Evolution of Street Art

Walking through the streets of Brooklyn, murals, sculptures, and stickers on every corner never fail to fascinate tourists and residents alike. Adorning walls and embellishing buildings, street art brings a variety of color and vibrance to the neighborhood. Whether seen as art or vandalism, it is a pivotal part of New York culture.

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However, it has not always been this way. Originating underground through the grimy subway tunnels, it took a while for street art to work its way up to street level, eventually escalating as high as buildings and rooftops.

“None of this will ever last,” said Ken Lee, a 40-year-old street art photographer from Brooklyn. Due to the constantly changing world we live in, street art continues to rapidly evolve in synch with the environment and modern society. Different factors both positively and negatively affect the development of street art, making it what it is today.

In the public eye, street art has always received negative connotations, perceived as merely a rebellious act for lower-class misfits. Because it is illegal and offensive to many property owners, it is easy for people to make this generalization. Although these stereotypes may have been true in the past, they no longer apply to every aspect of modern street art.

According to Lee, the negative stereotypes associated with street artists are currently no longer “as strong as you would think.” He claims that all of the street artists he’s met are “wonderful people,” despite the fact that they break the law on a daily basis.

The illegality of street art is actually what brings its allure. Lee describes legal art “like seeing animals in the zoo vs seeing them in the wild.” Illegal art really makes people think about its undercover meaning and what the artist went through to successfully display it. The amount of effort dedicated to a piece shows how important it is to the artist - important enough to risk his or her life.

“The idea of it being illegal is an incentive,” said Raymond Conlon, a street artist from Brooklyn. He claimed that if it was legal, he would not be doing it.

 Conlon’s work displayed right next to a surveillance sign- a clear sign of rebellion yet also a huge risk

Conlon’s work displayed right next to a surveillance sign- a clear sign of rebellion yet also a huge risk

People also commonly associate street art with mostly male figures. Although women have been involved in street art since the beginning, the community has always been dominated by men. Recently, however, street art is “being increasingly taken over by women,” according to David Mason, an art historian.

Lee claims that the recent women’s movement is “like a reckoning,” inspiring women to use their voice to make meaningful contributions to the street art community. “I think it’s cool, I think it’s great,” said Conlon, showing his full support of female participation.

 Feminist street art displayed in Brooklyn

Feminist street art displayed in Brooklyn

Social media is another factor that has played a major role in popularizing street art, especially among younger generations. With platforms such as Facebook and Instagram, artists have the ability to post pictures of their art for the whole world to see. In a society where everyone’s eyes are regularly glued to their phones, online posts are a great advertisement method to grab people’s attention.

Although Conlon agreed that social media has significantly benefited his career, he admitted there are negative aspects as well. He said that social media “dilutes the quality” of the art, as people will choose to view it online out of convenience rather than experiencing it fully in person. This consequently eliminates the authenticity of the art and sometimes even blurs the message the artist is trying to convey.

Street art also significantly contributes to gentrification, spreading the culture and allowing it to thrive in new places. “Artists tend to be the first to come to a new area,” said Conlon. “(They are) responsible for bringing gentrification in.” Filling streets with vivid images not only brings culture in, but it also helps brighten and “uplift a community.” The artwork plays a role in attracting tourists as well as permanent residents, and the neighborhood quickly fills with life.

Gentrification, however, pushes artists out, ridding the neighborhood of their work and culture. Ion explained that as time progresses and apartment prices rise, artists’ incomes do not increase at the same level. Artists are therefore unable to financially support themselves in a community that has priced them out.

Because of gentrification, artists are constantly moving and bringing their work with them. As they discover new locations, their art conforms to the different environment, affecting their styles as a result.

Conlon claims that he is unhappy with some of his old work because his “style has evolved.” Artists’ designs and techniques change in synch with the surrounding world, allowing fresh new pieces that reflect modern issues to circulate through the streets.

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However, artists maintain their identity by preserving a strong voice through their work that is uniquely theirs. Despite changes in style, artwork is often easily recognizable due to the creator’s distinct voice.

Despite the myriad societal changes that have affected street art over the course of time, one aspect has remained the same: the artists’ overall goal.

“Being known for your art,” Conlon said, ““and then being able to use that to do good things.”


JUNE 2018

The Crucibles is playwright by Arthur Miller that represents the Salem Witch Trials that took place in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1692. After reading this play for school, I realized a similar theme that was also depicted in The Scarlet Letter. This inspired me to analyze the similar theme in both books about the possibility for flawed characters to be good. 

The Crucibles - Characters that are Flawed but Good    

People often find it difficult to look past one misdeed a person is guilty of. However, despite one flaw, people still have the potential to be good. In the Crucibles, John Proctor committed the crime of adultery when he had an affair with his 17-year-old housekeeper. However in the end of the story, Proctor tells the truth and consequently abandons his good reputation. He also sacrifices his life for others and remains loyal to his friends by refusing to give up names. Therefore, despite committing a crime and being the cause of the entire witchcraft hysteria, Proctor was a good person and did the right thing in the end. His situation is similar to Hester Prynne's story in The Scarlet Letter. Although Hester was also guilty of sexual indiscretion, she made amends by creating beautiful needlework for the community and devoting time and money to charity. It was hard for people to realize her actions were genuinely good but , she made efforts to make up for her sin. It is clear that it is possible to still be good despite one mistake or misdeed.    

MAY 2018                     

The Great Gatsby is known as the great American novel and it has easily become one of my favorite books. Gatsby was on a quest for love and he went to extreme measures to achieve his goal and reach success. This inspired me to think about the American Dream and how F. Scott Fitzgerald represented this theme through Gatsby's story. 

The Great Gatsby and the American Dream   

Fitzgerald portrayed the American Dream by depicting Gatsby's difficult journey from rags to riches in attempt to win the girl he desires. The American dream is about reaching one's full potential and prosperity which is exactly what Gatsby does. He is stuck in the past and shapes his entire life to reach the goal of being with Daisy. In order to achieve this goal, Gatsby knows he must obtain wealth to impress and satisfy Daisy. The green light on Daisy's dock represents the color of money and Gatsby reaches out to it because it is something he wishes to possess. In addition to becoming wealthy, Gatsby pursues the American dream by attempting to achieve moral perfection. He models his life after Ben Franklin's schedule events as shown in the flyleaf of a book. However, Gatsby's journey to wealth did not follow the moral road as he was involved in the illegal liquor business with Meyer Wolfsheim. His actions therefore portray a negative perspective of the American dream because he achieved his goals unethically. 


APRIL 2018

Ever since I was young, I have always loved animals. My aunt is a veterinarian and has extreme compassion and empathy for all animals. She would constantly bring over stray pets left at her clinic for my family to foster which further stimulated my love for animals.  A couple of years ago, my family and I had fostered our fifth homeless cat and eventually we adopted him after I was no longer allergic to the cat. Since then, my cat has brought me much companionship and happiness to my life. After spending time learning about abandoned and homeless pets and shelter animals, I became aware of a growing national animal welfare problem. Local shelters get increasing number of animals that must be cared for and these shelters don’t receive enough donations which they can rely on to care for these abandoned and homeless animals. Given my love for animals, I wanted to help shelter animals and make a difference in their lives and was motivated to raise awareness of this growing animal welfare issue in my community.  In 2016, I organized and led a successful animal needs drive at my local animal shelter and collected donated pet foods and supplies. In only a couple of months, I collected over 160 lbs of dry dog food, 20 cans of dog food, 50 lbs of dry cat food, 40 cans of cat food, a dozen bags of dog and cat treats, blankets, pet carriers and many pet toys and clothes. 

Another growing concern over animals is the public opposition to the use of animals in medical research.  I have become a strong advocate against animal testing and have made great strides in spreading awareness and educating my community about the dangers and negative aspects of this research. I used my platform as a staff writer on my school newspaper to speak out against this issues as it is a topic I am very passionate about. 

The Horrors of Animal Testing

Locked up, abused, tortured, and killed, animals every day are forced to endure the pain and suffering that results from animal testing. According to PETA, over 100 million animals are killed every year due to this cruel and inhumane process, including mice, rats, frogs, dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, monkeys, fish, and birds. The purpose of animal testing is to benefit the future of science by further improving medical, drug, biology, and cosmetic advances, however, it comes at the expense of innocent animals’ lives. There is no justification that makes it morally acceptable for animals to die on human behalf.

Animal testing is meant to benefit humans and the scientific world, so it may seem like the death of these animals is only a small price to pay in exchange for the “greater good.” However innocent lives should not be lost just to benefit humans. The amount of torture and inhumane treatment than animals must endure is overwhelming and unnecessary. The Humane Society states that they are subjected to forced chemical exposure, genetic manipulation, physical restraint, food and water deprivation, pain infliction, ear notching and tail clipping, and more. They are deliberately harmed and usually killed at the end of the experiment. The Draize eye test, where rabbit eyelids are held open for multiple days, is only one example of the numerous inhumane treatments that animals suffer through. This test evaluates the irritation produced by cosmetics, so the product remains in the rabbits’ eyes for long time periods and is unable to be blinked away. Another test, known as the lethal dose 50 test intentionally causes the death of 50% of the animal subjects. These cruel experiments must end because animals do not deserve to be put through such terrible conditions.

Animals differ from humans in many ways, therefore they are not even accurate test subjects and experimenting on them is counterproductive. Due to the anatomic, metabolic, and cellular differences between animals and people, animals are poor models for human beings. The results on an animal can produce drastically different results on humans, which is why drugs that pass on animals are not necessarily safe for humans. For instance the sleeping pill thalidomide was safe for pregnant animals, however it caused 10,000 birth deformities in humans. These inaccurate test results can also mislead researchers into ignoring potential cures or treatments. Aspirin relieves pain in humans, however it is dangerous to some animal species. Vitamin C contributes to treating sepsis in humans, meanwhile it has no effect on mice. It is clear that animals should not be experimented on when they are not even accurate test subjects to begin with.

Today, science has advanced so greatly that it is unnecessary to still use animals as test subjects. Alternative testing methods already exist that can replace the need for animals. For example, studying cells in a petri dish uses human cells, so it is much more effective than using animal testing. Testing on artificial human skin also produces more useful results than testing on animal skin. As you can see, animal testing is not the way to go when humans are perfectly capable of using alternative testing methods that are actually more efficient.

It is clear that animal testing is not only inhumane, but it is also unnecessary. From a moral standpoint, killing and torturing animals is wrong and unfair, and innocent lives do not deserve to be lost. However it is also proven unnecessary because animals are not even good test subjects and they cause inaccurate results that can lead to negative consequences. There are also efficient alternatives to animal testing that can contribute to creating better and more accurate results. Therefore, eliminating animal testing will actually benefit science and make the world a better place.


MARCH 2018

I love cats!  One of my best friends at school read the short story, "The Black Cat," by Edgar Allen Poe, over holiday break and recommended it to me because she knows I love to read anything about cats. Although its an incredibly morbid story, I immediately fell in love with the fascinating writing style of Poe, inspiring me to purchase the "Complete Stories and Poems of Edgar Allen Poe" book. After reading multiple stories, I noticed similarities between "The Black Cat" and "The Tell-Tale Heart" and decided to further analyze their recurring themes. The work of Poe has provided me with a deeper appreciation for literature and allowed me to further enhance my writing skills. He is now one of my favorite authors.

"The Black Cat" vs "The Tell-Tale Heart"

"The Black Cat" and "The Tell-Tale Heart" are two of Edgar Allen Poe's most morbid, yet most captivating short stories. Each first person narrative tells the story of the main characters and the events that caused them to succumb to murder. Although fictional, Poe succeeds in crafting two narratives so realistic that it inflicts fear and horror to the reader. The stories are similar yet different in many ways and these qualities allow the reader to develop a new perspective and deeper understanding of the true meaning of insanity. 

In both "The Black Cat" and "The Tell-Tale Heart," the main characters open the narratives by convincing the reader he is not mad. The narrator then proceeds to explain why this is the case, and the story provides justification for his actions. The narrators believe their mental health is critical information for the reader to grasp, causing the reader to wonder if they are really crazy after all. The murder victims of both stories share similar characteristics, for instance, the victims' eye is an important aspect of both. In "The Tell-Tale Heart," the entire purpose of killing the old man was to rid the narrator of his cloudy blue vulture eye. The narrator of "The Black Cat" was also disturbed by eyes as he gouged out his own cat's eye and his new cat possessed an eye deformity. The eye is very significant as it is a key factor that leads the narrator into murder. The murderers also shared very personal, intimate relationships with their victims. The narrator of "The Tell-Tale Heart" repeatedly expressed his love for the old man, and the narrator of "The Black Cat" killed his beloved wife and two favorite pets. It was interesting to discover that the thing the two narrators loved most was their object of affection, yet it became the thing they decided to kill. 

Both stories share many differences as well. For instance, the narrator of "The Black Cat" repeatedly mentioned his initial remorse for his actions. However in "The Tell-Tale Heart" the narrator felt little to no remorse - the death of the old man left him unaffected. The personality differences between the two characters was important as well as interesting to note because it shows the contrasting natures of the two. Also, the despicable actions of "The Black Cat" were brought on by the corruption of alcohol, explaining the reasoning behind his madness. The narrator did not intentionally hurt his pets, however it was the result of his alcoholism. Meanwhile, the narrator of "The Tell-Tale Heart" possessed no sickness or disease; his motive to kill was merely his own desire. It is clear that although the narrators of both stories had similar minds and actions, there were differences that separated them as well. 

Poe establishes an atmosphere of fear and horror by using descriptive words to depict images of death and suffering. The excessive amount of dark and morbid language is necessary for a story that revolves around character death. A large portion of the story focuses on the plotting, planning, and escalating events that led to the murder, and this provides the reader with suspense and excitement. The stories are written as first person narrators which provides the reader insight to the characters' exact thought and ideas. However, first person narrators are not always reliable because it creates a biased story. The stories are only told from one perspective and this affects the reader's reception because it is one-sided. 

It is clear that "The Black Cat" and "The Tell-Tale Heart were two exceptional yet horrific stories. These stories shared many similarities and differences and these examples shape the reader's understanding of insanity. Although initially I was inclined to assume the narrators were mad and crazy, analyzing the stories provided me with new insight to their state of mental health. Despite the insane actions that took place, I realized that the narrators themselves were not insane. The reasons behind the characters' actions, although extreme, were understandable and justifiable. Therefore it is important to understand the motives and reasoning that explains why people do the things they do before immediately assuming the worst. 



After reading over 'The Scarlet Letter',  I discovered a common theme in this novel with two other stories I had read earlier in the year for school, 'Easy A' and  'Catcher in the Rye'.  The common theme is the significance of sexuality.

Significance of Sexuality-
The Scarlet Letter, Easy A, Catcher in the Rye

Sexuality is viewed in a negative manner, often perceived as a form of sin. However nearly every human eventually has sex at some point of their lives so if this is the case, then the world is full of sinners. It is impossible to be sexually pure, and those who believe they can be are only deceiving themselves. The characters of The Scarlet Letter, Easy A, and The Catcher in the Rye have come to this realization through their own personal experiences throughout each story. Although they struggled with the concept of sexuality, they overcame their challenges and learned to cope with it in various ways.

In The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne committed the crime of adultery and was forced to be publicly shamed for the rest of her life. Her sexual misconduct was exposed to the entire society, causing people to look down on her and criticize her. Hester made one mistake and was forced to live with the consequences forever. Despite other actions she made to amend for her sin, she was still shunned and there was nothing she could do to be accepted back into society. However, it is ironic because other people of the community were just as sinful as Hester; they revealed in secrecy to Dimmesdale that they committed adultery as well. The people shamed Hester for a crime they also committed, displaying sexual hypocrisy in the story.

Easy A was a story that also had a negative perspective on sexuality. After lying about losing her virginity, a series of more lies began to spiral out of control and Olive Penderghast soon became identified as the school slut. Even though Olive’s initial intention was to help others by lying for them, the other students paid no attention to her good deeds and only focused on her sexual sin. Sexual hypocrisy also played a role in Easy A as the students who shamed Olive were the ones who wanted to see her naked. In another instance, an extremely pious boy cheated on his girlfriend, slept with a teacher, and contracted chlamydia. These two scenarios of sexual hypocrisy show that those who criticized Olive were actually committing sexual sin themselves.

The Catcher in the Rye had a different outlook on sexuality because it was not viewed in such a deplorable way as it was in the other two novels. Although Holden Caulfield did not like the idea of kids losing their innocence to sexuality, he accepted it because he knew it was inevitable. Sex was an unavoidable part of growing up, and even though this disappointed Holden, he did not see any shame in it. However despite this acceptance of sexuality, the story still contained sexual hypocrisy in the sense that an adult was not capable of recognizing his own sexuality. Holden’s teacher, Mr. Antolini, was a closeted gay man who was married to a woman. Even after attempting to make a move on a male student, he was still unable to accept the fact that he was gay and could not embrace his own sexuality.

Sexuality heavily influenced the characters and their development as people, drastically affecting their lives. These three stories have proven that no matter how hard you try to prevent it, all people will eventually reach sexuality and give in to this “sin.” Clearly it is impossible for humans to be purely good because sin and misdeeds are inevitable and all part of human nature. The desire to have sex is innate and extremely powerful, and trying to control this is quite difficult and for some, impossible. Sex is a natural instinct inherit in all humans and animals, and seeking sex with another individual is part of our genetic makeup. Therefore humans will never be fully capable of escaping this natural sin they are born with, so it is better to accept sexuality rather than shame people for it.



The Scarlet Letter is one of my favorite books and after re-reading the novel, I was able to further explore the question of whether humans are naturally good or not. 

The Scarlet Letter- Character Analysis

People often receive satisfaction by inflicting pain or misery on those inferior to them.  They are driven by a desire for power because it is human nature to crave dominance over others.  This need for supremacy explains why bullying is such a major issue in society today. All people, especially kids, are fueled by a natural, innate competitiveness and jealousy which leads them to commit unethical actions in order to achieve the ultimate goal of rising above others.

The Scarlet Letter explains how even the most admired and respected member of a community has the capability of possessing undesirable thoughts and committing crime.  Arthur Dimmesdale, a Puritan minister and a model citizen for the people, committed the act of adultery and fathered an illegitimate child.  Hypocritical as this may seem, the best member of a society is actually hiding the worst secret, proving that humans are incapable of goodness if even the best member is drawn to darkness.



I recently had to read several novels for school - Lord of the Flies, Night, and Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.  These works of literature made me wonder about the true nature of human beings and inspired me to further analyze what brings about evil and bad behavior in humans. 

Are People Good?

Human nature consists of the general psychological characteristics, feelings, and behavioral traits of humankind that all humans share. By nature, people posses bad or sinful thoughts and characteristics and it is impossible to ever be completely good. Human nature causes people to be naturally bad and everyone eventually succumbs to their impurities and sinfulness.

One test of human nature is explained in Lord of The Flies. In this novel, a group of young boys between the ages of 5-12 were stranded on an island without adult supervision or care. They were forced to create their own society, find food, and take care of one another until rescued. However this civilized group did not last long and in a short time the boys succumbed to their true evil nature which led them to killing and violence. Savagery overcame the boys and they all turned on one another until their goal was no longer to be rescued, it was to kill and become the strongest. This novel portrayed how humans are naturally bad because even with boys at such a young age who have been taught morals, in the end their first instinct was to kill.

The biography, Night, by Elie Wiesel, also supports the idea that all people are bad. The Holocaust was a terrible genocide of 6 million Jews and it was clearly in the Nazi’s human nature to hate and want to kill these innocent people. They had no sympathy towards the Jews because their hatred overpowered any sense of empathy. Although the Jews were the victims, eventually even they gave into their sinful nature because they became selfish and fought others for their own survival. They initially wanted to stick together to stay strong, but it wasn’t long before the hardships became so unbearable that they turned on one other. They fought for food, killed each other, and sacrificed others in order to live another day. The Nazis showed that people have a natural inclination of hate and violence towards others, and the Jews showed how easy it was to surrender to violence and how humans would do just about anything to keep themselves alive.

In Jonathan Edwards’ “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” sermon, the nature of humans is explained in great depth. Everyone is considered a sinner and we are all born with an inclination to do bad things. From the moment of birth, all humans possess “original sin” which is the tendency to sin that is innate in all human beings. No matter how hard you try, you cannot escape this sin because it is in your nature and God will choose your path anyway. Edwards believes that everyone is a sinner and we will all eventually go to Hell anyway, but we are still alive now because God wills us to live and he is in control of our lives.

Therefore, humans have a natural inclination to do nefarious, immoral things. People cannot escape their sinful thoughts, feelings, and actions because as a human, it will always be in your nature to do wrong. Humans are sinners from birth and different situations can affect their moral values and contribute to their sins. It is clear from these three examples that it is an uncontrollable, innate quality that humans possess and no one can escape it. In Lord of the Flies, the children turned savage at such a young age, and in Night, people of all ages succumbed to their evil nature. As you can see, sin is the true nature of people however it is masked by the effort and goal to be good.  



The Cat and the Mouse

A dark shadow lurks behind the bushes
Illuminated by a hint of moonlight.
He hides with such skill and stealth
So quiet you could hear a pin drop.
With alert ears and watchful eyes
He waits forever his dinner to arrive.
The silence is soon broken with a snap of a twig
A mouth-watering aroma indicates that prey is near.
With a flick of his ear and a twitch of his nose
His target is located and action begins.
One paw in front of the other
He readies himself for the pounce.
He propels himself into the air
Strong muscles rippling as he leaps forward.
Landing so softly and startling his prey
He sinks his teeth into the delicious body.
"At last," he purrs
"It is time to eat."



  photo from the 1982 Bantam Books edition of Night

photo from the 1982 Bantam Books edition of Night

I just finished reading two incredible books over the summer, Night by Eli Wiesel and Maus by Art Spiegelman. Both books were extraordinary literary works that educated readers about the Holocaust and provided them with real experiences from survivors. I learned a lot from reading these books as it taught me important life lessons. I was able to understand this historic event in more depth by understanding the two different perspectives of both books. 

Night & Maus: Book Review

Night was a regular novel while Maus was a graphic novel. It was interesting to compare and contrast these two writing styles because they are very different from each other. One was written as a story and only used words while the other used images and drawings. Readers were able to learn how these styles were used and discover the different techniques involved in it. For instance, reading a graphic novel is different from a traditional novel because the pictures tell the story, not the words. The main role of the words in Maus are to capture dialogue and caption images. Meanwhile the words of Night tell the entire story. 

These two books gave me a really vivid image of the Holocaust. They also provided me with the history of this life-changing event. Night was written by someone who personally lived through this devastating experience. The author explained the difficulties and hardships he faced while in the ghettos and concentration camps and how he managed to survive. On the other hand, Maus was written by the son of a Holocaust survivor. This book is not a primary source and therefore is not as detailed and reliable. However, it provided me with great insight about how the Holocaust affected future generations to come. Both books are exceptional sources in understanding the events that took place at this time. I also got a clear understanding of the authors’ emotions based on the descriptive words or facial expressions of the artwork. 

Although both books are incredible literary works, I personally preferred reading Maus. This is because this was my first time reading a graphic novel and I found it really interesting. The characters were also established as anthropomorphic animals such as mice, pigs, and cats. This appealed to my interests because it was something I had never encountered in a book before and the symbolism was done very well. I would definitely recommend this book, along with Night, to my peers or any other readers interested in the topic.